But concerns loom about OS vendor profitability. Over three months CIOs and financial directors in financial services, retail and public sector were interviewed for this survey. CNet news commented on this study with additional commentary about open source vs. This data was determined by Gartner Dataquest, and reported in C Net. In a survey of business users by Forrester Research Inc. A survey found that TechRepublic suggested that there are several possible reasons for this surprisingly large result: A survey between and by D.
How Good are those Young
The first radiocarbon measurements on bone were on naturally burned bone Arnold and Libby ; De Vries and Barendesen Soon after Libby Only two samples of whole bone had been measured at this time, and both gave young dates. More recently the context of one of the samples C initially thought to be from a Folsom level at Lubbock Lake, Texas has been placed in doubt Taylor
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is a common element found in many materials, such as micas, clay minerals, tephra, and these materials, the decay product
This article was authored by Michael Gleghorn and Rodger Young. She tends to understand things best when she can visualize them in some way. Thus, week-by-week, as she readied herself for class, she also prepared a wide array of graphically-designed visuals of the written contents of Scripture. Everything was going fairly well until she came to the Old Testament books of Kings and Chronicles. Since these books give us a great deal of information about the kings of Israel and Judah, including the order in which they reigned, the lengths of their reigns, and so on, she decided to create some charts that would present all of this information visually.
She had no idea that she was about to enter one of the most baffling and perplexing issues of biblical chronology! To put it bluntly, the chronology of Kings and Chronicles initially appears to be a hopelessly muddled, and even downright contradictory, mess! Examining this material as an intelligent layperson, my wife could make no sense of it at all. It also meant that she could not represent the material in a visually coherent way.
Feeling increasingly frustrated, she asked if I knew of any books that dealt with these problems. Although this is an area I know little about, I remembered a book which I had heard handled these issues quite well. That book, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, by Edwin Thiele, offered her some much-needed help in making sense of the apparently confused and contradictory information in the books of Kings and Chronicles.
Methods of Payment
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
The Historical Reliability of the Gospels [Craig L. Blomberg] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For over twenty years, Craig Blomberg’s The Historical Reliability of the Gospels has provided a useful antidote to many of the toxic effects of skeptical criticism of .
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.
Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century.
Creation vs. Evolution
Carbon 14 is used for this example: This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon method if it were so obviously flawed.
This paper provides quantitative data that, in many cases, open source software / free software is equal to or superior to their proprietary competition. The paper examines market share, reliability, performance, scalability, scaleability, security, and total cost of ownership; it also comments on non-quantitative issues and unnecessary fears.
None Complete – relies on seller to ship exactly the goods expected, as quoted and ordered Seller’s goods must be special in one way or another, or special circumstances prevail over normal trade practices example, goods manufactured to buyer-only specification. Storage, handling, return freight expenses may be incurred Assures shipment but not content, unless inspection or check-in is allowed before payment Security to the seller is assured if the transfer of funds is confirmed prior to buyer taking possession of the goods.
Commercial Invoice must match the Letter of Credit exactly. Dates must be carefully headed – “Stale” documents are unacceptable for collection. Letters of Credit require total accuracy in conforming to terms, conditions, and documentation. Confirmed Irrevocable Credit After shipment is made, documents presented to the Bank After payment Gives the seller a double assurance of payments – Depends on the terms of the letter of credit. Assures shipment is made but relies on exporter to ship goods as described in documents.
Terms may be negotiated prior to letter of credit agreement, alleviating buyer’s degree of risk. The inclusion of a second assurance of payment usually a “reputable” Bank prevents surprises, adds assurance that issuing bank has been deemed acceptable by confirming bank. Adds cost and an additional requirement to seller. Unconfirmed Irrevocable Credit Same as above Same as above Seller has single bank assurance of payment and seller remains dependent on foreign bank.
Seller should contact his banker to determine whether or not the issuing bank has sufficient assets to cover the amount. Same as above Credit can be changed only by mutual agreement, as stipulated in a sales agreement. Becomes open account with buyer’s bank as collection agent.
Unreliability of Radiometric Dating and Old Age of the Earth
Click here to move directly to the list of machine-made dating questions. Machine-made bottles will exhibit most or all of the diagnostic characteristics explained and illustrated below. It should be noted that features 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are primary indicators of machine-made manufacture. Feature 2 mold seam diameter is not as strongly diagnostic as the primary indicators as mouth-blown bottles sometimes can have very fine mold seams.
Feature 7 describes a couple glass related features that are quite consistent in machine-made bottles, but not diagnostic, i.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.. The method was developed in the late s by Willard Libby, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon (
Questionnaires can contain both open questions and closed questions and participants record their own answers. Interviews are a type of spoken questionnaire where the interviewer records the responses. Interviews can be structured whereby there is a predetermined set of questions or unstructured whereby no questions are decided in advance. The main strength of self-report methods are that they are allowing participants to describe their own experiences rather than inferring this from observing participants.
Questionnaires and interviews are often able to study large samples of people fairly easy and quickly. They are able to examine a large number of variables and can ask people to reveal behaviour and feelings which have been experienced in real situations. However participants may not respond truthfully, either because they cannot remember or because they wish to present themselves in a socially acceptable manner.
Social desirability bias can be a big problem with self-report measures as participants often answer in a way to portray themselves in a good light. Questions are not always clear and we do not know if the respondent has really understood the question we would not be collecting valid data. If questionnaires are sent out, say via email or through tutor groups, response rate can be very low.
Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FOSS, or FLOSS) Look at the Numbers!
Abstract Background The duration of untreated psychosis DUP has been associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, and is considered to be one of the key parameters in managing clinical high risk and first episode psychosis patients. However, considerable discrepancies exist in the way that DUP is estimated in different studies. There is no standard or consensus on which method is most reliable and valid for assessing DUP.
Methods This review aimed to quantitatively assess different DUP measurement instruments and definitions by comparing their inter-rater reliability, and their strength of validity in predicting biological and clinical outcomes. Results Nine instruments designed for measuring DUP were found. Their inter-rater reliability were found to be adequate to excellent, although quite varied.
The following article is primarily based on a discussion of radiocarbon dating found in The Biblical Chronologist Volume 5, Number 1. Full details and references can be found there. Radiocarbon dating is based on a few relatively simple principles. There are many carbon atoms in our environment. The vast majority of these are 12C pronounced “c twelve” , the stable isotope of carbon.
However, cosmic radiation constantly collides with atoms in the upper atmosphere. Part of the result of these collisions is the production of radiocarbon 14C, pronounced “c fourteen” , carbon atoms which are chemically the same as stable carbon, but have two extra neutrons. Radiocarbon is not stable; over time radiocarbon atoms decay into nitrogen atoms. This tendency to decay, called radioactivity, is what gives radiocarbon the name radiocarbon.
The atmosphere contains many stable carbon atoms and relatively few radiocarbon atoms.
How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case.
Many other radiocarbon dates were conducted on samples of wood of known age.
The following material has been taken from a sheet entitled Several Faulty Assumptions Are Used in all Radiometric Dating Methods. Carbon 14 is used for this example: which was put out by Dr. Hovind. Dr. Hovind (R1): The atmospheric C is presently only 1/3 of the way to an equilibrium value.
Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.
Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.
The different elements of the carbon exchange reservoir vary in how much carbon they store, and in how long it takes for the 14 C generated by cosmic rays to fully mix with them. This affects the ratio of 14 C to 12 C in the different reservoirs, and hence the radiocarbon ages of samples that originated in each reservoir.