Strengthening Protection of Patient Medical Data

They were the Brahaminism, the Buddhism and the Jainism Nirgranthas. Latest research and excavation at Mohenjodaro and Harappa has shown that the Jainism existed five thousand years ago, however the Jains believe it to be eternal. The traditions and the legendary accounts prove the existence of Jainism as eternal. Twenty-four Tirthankaras in each half cycle reveal Jainism again and again in every cyclic period of the universe. The Jains divide the whole span of time into two equal cycles, namely, Utsarpini and Avasarpini. During Utsarpini, there is a gradual increase in moral and physical state of the universe, while during Avasarpini, the case is just the opposite, i. Each of these two is subdivided into six aras each extending from twenty-two thousands of years to crores of years. These time-cycles go on forever and the humans like us rise to be Tirthankaras Jina at regular intervals. They, themselves, practice the eternal principles of Jainism and attain omniscience Kevaljnan and preach and expound us the same. Upadhye remarked — “The origins of Jainism go back to the pre-historic times.

The Colour Blue in Antiquity

Up and down stairs to both main streets. Ram the manager is so helpful. Nothing was too much trouble for him to do.

religious, instructional and political themes, as well as individual names and graffiti dating back to the earliest literate times. Stone inscriptions were a particularly potent form of political display, with leaders in many ancient cultures using them to make political or Cambridge:,,,. Antiquity &,.

Madero [2] and the Nobel Laureate Octavio Paz. There is a veritable catalog of writers, poets, linguists and philosophers of almost all nations and movements, who have greatly appreciated and praised this treatise. Indian Sanskrit literature consists of three main sources, in Sanskrit prasthana-traya, that includes: It is the one stop app to know about deep concepts of Gaudiya sampradaya!

It is rich in all the literary resources aimed at the didactic purpose of transmitting its philosophical system, therefore it is honored by the other puranic text. Later, other scholars have brought evidence that the text already existed in the 9th century, and this is the theory that has become more generally accepted. However, various researchers have found evidence that the text was known in the 5th century or even earlier. From there the query arises. In this article we will give a general presentation of the results arrived at in Master degree thesis at the IBCH.

We will appreciate any constructive criticism that contributes more evidence to solve the problem. Epistemology principles Scholars of history, philosophy and sociology of science consider as one of the basic principles in scientific investigation distinguishing it from belief systems or pseudo-sciences.

11 Ancient Board Games

Norte Chico in the Andes The first civilization emerged in Sumer in the southern region of Mesopotamia now part of modern-day Iraq. C, Sumerian city states had collectively formed civilization , with government, religion, diversity of labor and writing. Among the city states Ur was among the most significant. The Sumerian Renaissance also developed c. Egypt was a superpower at the time. East of Persia, was the Indus River Valley civilization which organized cities neatly on grid patterns.

An area rich in wildlife and antiquity a history dating back to the Romans and Picts. Greenden Farmhouse is a charming country house dating back to Enclosed by a mature garden it is indeed an enchanting spot.

Early Bronze Age Greek Pottery c. Meanwhile, in the Cyclades southern Greek islands new forms of pottery included Sesklo ware, which incorporated geometric decoration with incised spirals and maritime motifs. Cretan pottery also had geometric designs: Early Minoan shapes included high-spouted jugs and long-spouted drinking vessels, not unlike tea-pots. Middle Bronze Age Greek Pottery c. Typically a uniform grey colour, Minyan ware was the first type of Greek pottery made on a potter’s wheel, and was therefore quicker and cheaper to produce.

In the islands, the handmade pottery tradition continued with rectilinear designs in lilac or black on a white surface. But the finest ceramics were produced in Crete during the flowering of the Minoan Protopalatial period BCE , when the great palaces of Knossos and Phaistos were built. An example is Kamares ware, a style from Phaistos, which was made on a wheel and decorated with red and white floral and geometric designs on a black background. Minoan pottery had much more sophisticated ornamentation, greater artistry in its designs and use of colour, and was exported widely around the eastern Mediterranean.

ANTIQUITY OF JAINISM

Share via Email This article is over 2 years old Illustration of Beauty and the Beast, one of the fairytales believed to date from thousands of years ago. These stories have been told since before even English, French and Italian existed Dr Jamie Tehrani In the 19th century Wilhelm Grimm, of the Brothers Grimm, believed many of the fairy stories they popularised were rooted in a shared cultural history dating back to the birth of the Indo-European language family. But later thinkers challenged that view, saying some stories were much younger, and passed into oral tradition having first been written down by writers from the 16th and 17th centuries.

ment in antiquity can be assessed by studying ancient skin, artefacts illustrating medical disor-ders and literature from the classified period as Pe rsonal assessment of mummies, dating back 3, years, nat-urally preserved in the Taklamakan Desert in north west China, surprisingly showed that some had European facial characteris-.

Preface The Vedic culture has been pervading the Indian subcontinent for a few thousand years back from today. The antiquity and continuity of this culture has been faithfully recorded in the oldest and grandest annals of mankind: Evidence has come forth entirely contradicting the present held “aryan invasion” of India. Archaeological excavations and other findings confirm the inception of the Indus Valley civilization as Vedic.

The Mahabharata and Ramayanic civilizations flourished in the ancient past. The history of India entered the medieval ages almost years ago, and even before the advent of Christ, the quintessence of philosophy thought and civilizational aspects of India had already been accomplished. The “golden age” in India was ushered in with the rise of the Gupta dynasty. It was Chandragupta of the Guptas who reigned over the Indian empire around B.

In this article, it is attempted to derive the datelines of ancient Indian alias Vedic events and heroes, starting from Swayambhuva Manu to the kings of the Gupta dynasty. An outline of the antiquity and continuity of Vedic history is estimated, substantiating the events with a variety of evidence, including literary and archaeological.

Introduction The study of history forms an important part in providing an understanding and in giving a clearer perspective of the present mental setup and cultural state of a nation of peoples.

History of wrestling

Since the fall of the Roman and Byzantine Empires , Roman Architecture has continued to inspire architectural design and styles throughout the ages. Since the fall of the Roman Empire, various architectural styles have sprung up that borrowed heavily from the surviving Roman buildings throughout Europe. These new styles would also be exported outside of Europe as their influence spread throughout the globe.

It has been argued that this was, in fact, an earlier phase of Neoclassicism and it is primarily influenced by ancient Roman architecture. It is known as the first truly “European” style of architecture and borrowed heavily from buildings seen by returning Crusaders. Neoclassical Neoclassicism was a reaction to the more flamboyant Baroque and Rococo styles that preceded it.

Animal medicine and surgery are undoubtedly very ancient activities dating back to at least the time when species were domesticated. However, the first written documents did not appear until Antiquity.

Excavations over the last years have produced evidence of habitation off and on since the Mesolithic Age. Archaeologists date excavated remains anywhere from 9, B. The site of ancient Jericho, termed Tell es-Sultan by archaeologists, only covers approximately 10 acres, a modest size even in antiquity. Its 70 foot Tell has been cleared to the bedrock, and has revealed over 23 layers of ancient civilization.

The ancient city possessed a circumference of one mile. At the time of the conquest by Joshua, it is estimated the population of Jericho was around 2, people. Twenty percent of that population would have been available for defense of the city. Tell es-Sultan lies just over 1 mile 2km from the center of the modern day Jericho Israel, and a mere 18 miles 30km east of Jerusalem. At feet m below sea level, this city is the lowest in the world. The “wilderness of Jerusalem “, also called the Judean Desert, is square miles km2 of dry desert; uninhabitable land surrounding Jericho.

Antiquity definition and meaning

In a recent visit he focused on strengthening ties between these two great countries. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu recently completed a tour of China designed to enhance bilateral relations between the two countries. Similarly, Chinese Ambassador to Israel Gao Yanping said that China and Israel have maintained close high-level contact in recent years, creating a good atmosphere for the growth of bilateral ties.

The Chinese greatly admire what Israel has to offer. Additionally, one Chinese president has visited Israel, while three Israeli prime ministers have visited China. If we work hand-in-hand, and combine our respective advantages, we will enjoy common development and win-win results.

Alcohol in antiquity clearly extends far back in human experience. 2 This is known from chemical analysis of pottery found in Jiahu, in northern China dating B.C. The containers had contained a fermented drink made with rice, honey, grapes, and hawthorn berries. 7.

The History, Antiquity and Chronology of Hinduism by Jayaram V The word Hinduism does not render full justice to the complexity of an ancient living religion that once dominated half of the world. Perhaps many Hindus may not even know what it actually means and what truly constitutes Hinduism. Hidden within its depths are very diverse traditions and religious practices that are often contradictory and unrelated. What truly holds them together is the fact that they originated in a particular geographical area and hold certain common basic beliefs that are eternal, indisputable and validated by independent seekers of truth time and again.

Concepts such as karma, maya, reincarnation, existence of a universal self and individual self, nature or prakriti, bondage of the soul, suffering as nature of earthly life, the role of a guru, and the possibility of salvation for the individual soul make Hinduism a complex religion, that caters to a wide range of people with different spiritual needs. Some scholars contend that belief in the Vedas is a precondition to be recognized as a Hindu.

However this is a debatable issue as some followers of Saivism and Tantrism believe in the Agamas instead of the Vedas and are still considered as Hindus. Vedic and Non Vedic origin of Hinduism It has been a long tradition in the academic circles to place Vedic religion at the center of Hinduism, considering it to be its main source and begin the discussion of the origin of Hinduism with the vedic Aryans.

It is based on the assumption that the history of Hinduism began with the vedic Aryans who came to India in hordes, occupied large tracts of the Indian subcontinent and introduced an advanced religion to the native people of India. Based upon this premise and the possible age of the Rigveda they fix the origin of Hinduism to be around to BC. This theory, which was popularized by the European historians of the British era, is not only erroneous but misleading.

It ignores the fact that before the Vedic people, the Indian subcontinent was populated by more advanced civilizations who followed various religious traditions of their own. We are not sure whether they were an earlier group of vedic people or non-vedic people or both and whether they were indigenous people or descended from different groups of earlier immigrants to India from Africa, Egypt and elsewhere around BC or even earlier.

Evidences of high technology in Antiquity

As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e.

It is fair to say that there are a few legendary elements as one goes further back in history, but I believe that the Bible stands up to historical scrutiny. History shows that there could be a direct relationship between the ancient monarchies of Israel/Judah, Ireland, .

Afterwards, because of the success of that style, even leading masters tended to look back to it – and its exemplary works, such as the Parthenon – as a sort of standard, repeating its formulas in varying degree, and making equally selective use of the innovations of their contemporaries. Since also there are few usefully dated originals or copies either, the history of the Late Classical style has not yet been worked out in convincing detail and historians disagree widely on the chronology and assessment of important pieces.

In general it looks as if the High Classical tradition in Greek art remained dominant till the s BCE, sometimes fairly pure and sometimes in a mannered exaggeration, but later new trends asserted themselves more insistently. These trends were not ubiquitous nor were they all combined in anyone work, but on the whole their direction was towards a closer imitation of nature in flesh, facial expression, drapery and pose, though the requirements of ideal art were not forgotten.

The end of the Late Classical style is usually put at the death of Alexander the Great in BCE, but the most significant changes may have occurred some thirty or forty years earlier and perhaps the conventional periods of Greek sculpture ought to be revised. Late Classical Trends and Characteristics By the end of the fourth century, so Pliny says, some sculptors were taking plaster casts from human models, but advances in superficial anatomy had of course been appearing earlier.

The Aberdeen head, which should not be much later than BCE, is an admirable example of a successful new type.

The History, Antiquity and Chronology of Hinduism

Posted 30 March – Unfortunately it is not possible to date the exact time when the first Inks where use. One could safely say that the first use of ink was a giant step in the advance of culture. Before this time pictures or texts where carved in stone, clay tablets and sheets of metal. The soot was obtained by burning lacquer and the use of pine wood charcoal. The ink was dried and pressed in bars for sale.

The wearing of the Sacred Thread, the Kushti is a very ancient custom dating back to the Early Bronze Age (ca. BCE) the time the Vedic and Indic .

This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p.

Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia” [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford, , p. While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated. As recounted above , Seleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos. With Babylon secure, he was able to take control of the vast Iranian hinterland, the geographical bulk of Alexander’s Empire.

However, Seleucus leaves India to the growing power of the Mauryas , and was compensated with war elephants that he then began to breed himself. Having defeated and killed Antigonus and Lysimachus , Seleucus was about to add Thrace to his kingdom when, stepping out of the boat in Europe, he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, whom he had taken in as a refugee from his father, Ptolemy I.

Ceraunus is also said to have killed Seleucus while they were hunting together near Lysmacheia, which had been Lysimachus’ capital on the Gallipoli peninsula.

Cruising around the Greek Islands with Seafarercruises